Features of a Political Party
- A political party is a fairly large group of people.
- Members of a political party have similar political views or fait in one political ideology.
- Political party is an organized association. It has its constitution which defines its ideology, aims, objectives, and office-bearers of the Party (President of the Party, Executive Committee of the Party, Election Committee and other such committees and office bearers of the party)
- A political party always tries to get the power to form the government and to rule the country.
- A political party has full faith is peaceful methods. In always acts through peaceful means, like elections, for fulfilling its aim.
- A political party always works for the promotion of interests of the nation as a whole.
- A political party always acts according to the provisions of the constitution and rules laid down by laws.
- A political party is actively involved in politics either as a ruling party or as an opposition party.
- A political party is actively involved in elections. It fields its candidates, organizes election campaigns and tries to win more and more seats in the elections.
- In a democratic state, several political parties freely participate in the political process. The people have the right and freedom to organize their political parties.
- When several, essentially more than two political parties are actively involved in politics, the system is called Multi-party system. When two political parties act as major players in politics and others play a minor role, the system is called Bi-party system.
Function of Political Parties
Political Parties perform very essential and useful functions in every democracy. A democratic government always works through political parties. Election cannot be held with out political parties. Political parties contest elections. These put up their candidates in elections. Each political party tries to secure maximum support for its candidates. When a political party or group of parties wins majority of seats in elections, it forms the government. Such political parties as do not get a majority, play the role of opposition parties.Political parties provide to the people education about politics a government. People take part in elections and politics through their political parties. Political parties convey to the government the views and demands of the people. In elections, a very large number of candidates is fielded by political parties. Political parties always try to win public support by maintaining active contacts with the people. Political parties act as agencies for forming public opinion on varies issues and problems or the country. It also serves as agencies for the recruiting leaders. In fact, while working as active members of political parties several persons emerge as political leaders. It takes active part in the working of democracy. These also perform several social welfare functions and help the people during natural calamities like earthquakes, floods, famines, Tsunami and others.
Political Parties in India
India is world’s largest functioning democracy. Democracy has been successfully working in India since her independence in 1947. After the inauguration of the Constitution of India on 26 January 1950 India became a democratic Republic and continues to be so till today. In the working of Indian Democratic Republic, several political parties have been playing a very important and useful role. Several parties have been now together acting as ruling parties. The people of India have the right and freedom to organize their political parties. Infect they have organized several political parties. Because of the prevailing regional and cultural diversities, the people of India have organized several political parites. India has a real multi-party system.
National Level Political Parties
Indian National Congress (INC), Bhartiya Janata Party(BJP) , Communist Party of India (CPI) Communist Party Marxist (CPM) National Congress Party (NCP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) are very active parties. These enjoy support and popularity in all parts of India. The Election Commercial of India has recognized these as National Level Parties.
Regional Level Political Parties
Along with these, several other political parties have been very active in one or two states. These are called regional parties or state level parties or local parities. Dravid Munetra Kazghan (DMK). All India Anna Dravid Munetra Kazahan *AIADMK), Biju Janata Dal (BJD) Rashtrya Jaanata Dal (RJD), Shromani Akali Dal (SAD) , Telugu Desam Party (TDP), Janata Dal Secular (JDS), Assom Gana Parishad (AGP) are examples of regional parties in India.
Recognition of Political Parties
Infect, the Election Commission of India recognizes various political parties as National Parties, Regional Parties, Local Parties and Registered parties. Such recognition is based upon the performance of the political parties in elections. Such political parties as win several seats in several different states or poll a large proportion of votes of the people, are recognized as national parties. The political parties, which are active in two or three states, are recognizes as Regional Parties. A political party, which is active only in one state, gets recognition as a local party or a state party. Each political party has its own constitution and an organization. Each has its own symbol. For example, the congress has Hand, the BJP Lotus Flower, and the BSP elephant, as their respective party symbols. Each political party has the freedom to carry out its activities in the country.
Registration and Classification of Political Parties
Each party in India has to get it registered with the Election Commission. Each Party has to submit a copy of its constitution and a list of its office bearers to the Election Commission. It has to affirm full faith in the Constitution of India. On the basis of the performance of political parties, the Election Commission recognizes each party either as a national party, or a regional party to a local party or registered and recognized party. The Election Commission grants such recognition on the basis of the achievement of various parties is elections, which are held from time to time. The political parties which are recognizes as national parties enjoy popularity and support in all parts of India or at least in three or more states. A regional parity is an active party in one or two states. All political parties national or regional or local have the freedom to freely participate in all elections. These are also free to perform other activities and to carry out their programmers. In practice all the Indian political parties always contest elections in India. The Constitution of India has granted to the people of India the fundamental right to freely organize their political parties. The only condition is that each political party has to declare its faith in the Constitution of India and the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India as a sovereign independent republic.