Computers have become an integral part of education at levels primary or higher. Computers have enriched the learning process at various levels of education. At higher level, students of Engineering and Science can derive benefits from computers. By learning computer programs they can solve their problems with the aid of computers. Computers solve mathematical equations and other scientific problems very quickly. Besides, a part of education, schools, colleges and universities are using computers for various utilities viz. pay rolls, time-tables etc. Last but not least, computers have proved their worth in all spheres of life. Without computers, the man of today, is not capable of doing his activities. Computer has made the universe like a tennis ball.
Computers are being used on a large scale in all industries larger or smaller. Computers control the production efficiency in various industries. In steel industry, the accurate cutting of steel sheets into desired length is controlled by computer systems. Computers are responsible for controlling machines. The maintenance of temperature, pressure to a controlled level. The chemical plants are controlled by computers more effectively than to control it manually. In drilling and rolling, computers play a crucial role. Computers can monitor and regulate the process of refining in refineries without human intervention. The computers can detect the faults in gas pipe lines and other systems and help to bring the process back into normal.
Banks are among the large organisations to invest heavily in computers. Today, the banking in urban areas is totally dependent on the computers. The computerisation in the banking sector is necessary because of massive volume of different types of transactions. Computers have been installed in branches at different counters viz Saving Bank, Current Account, Cash Credit, Account etc. Cheques are handled by the computers at clearing houses. By computerisation, many problems have been solved. Balances are automatically tallied in the accounts. Customers can obtain printed statements of their accounts. Automatic Teller Machines have been installed in the branch premises of various banks. Different networks viz. BANKNET, SWIFT are also working to expedite the customer service. In all, banking is handicapped without computers.
Computers are used in the various fields of medicines viz. Hospital Administration, Monitoring the patient’s condition, diagnosis of a diseases, medical research, laboratories, experimentation etc. In the diagnosis of Cancer, Heart disease etc. computers play an important role and can monitor the patient’s condition. Scanning instruments are attached to the patients and the attending doctor can notify the condition of the patientand start the right treatment. The computers can assist in prescribing the correct dosage after monitoring the disease. These machines can effectively control the blood pressure, heart beats, level of glucose in blood. In hospitals computers keep the records of indoor and outdoor patients. The computers are used in administration, preparing inventories of drugs, surgical equipments, bed allocation etc. The appointments made to be made by the doctors are recorded in the computers.
Today, without computers, working in the Railway Departments, Airlines, Shipping has become impossible. Railway time tables and other timing schedules are prepared with the assistance of computers. The Railway traffic has been increased to a very large extent and it has become impossible to control this traffic without the aid of computers. The process of reservation in Railway is not possible without the help of computers. The operator at any counter can tell you the availability of the berth in a particular train. Sitting at other city, you can reserve your tickets for other cities. For example, if you reside at Chandigarh, you can reserve your tickets from Mumbai to New Delhi in Rajdhani Express. Similarly computers are increasingly used in Airlines to control air traffic, reservation and cancellation of tickets.
The requirements of computers in this sector are similar to those in banking sector. A large number of files relating to customers policies is to be updated. Calculation of bonus, premium, interest is to be done on a large scale. Insurance companies have to intimate to the customers who do not pay the installments in time. Matured policies are to be paid. Manually it is a tedious job to handle all these transactions. With the introduction of computers in this sector, the burden on the employees has been reduced and statements of accounts are ready in no time.
Space Technology and Climate
The computer has played a leading role in space technology. Satellites are sent into space with the aid of computers. These satellites are designed with computers. In the weather forecast, computers have been proved very useful. The correct forecast given by the computers is very helpful for the people living in hilly areas or at sea-shores.
In Preparing Pay Rolls
In large departments, organizations, business houses, factories etc. computer is an aid in preparing pay rolls of the staff members. In calculations of Salary, D.A. and other allowances computers make no mistakes. Income tax calculations of employees are done with the assistance of computers.
Telephone exchanges have been computerised to handle increasing volume of calls. Through computer networks the calls can be transmitted at a very fast speed. At STD shops, computers can make the calculations of calls as per pulse rate according to the duration of the call. The transmission of telegrams, fax messages has become very fast. The computers can maintain the log of calls for billing cycle.
India’s New Achievement In The Field Of Computers
India has developed a new Super Computer which has been named as PARAM-10000. This has been developed by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (CDAC) at Pune. This computer has the virtue of being the second largest computer in Asia. With the development of this computer,India has entered in the field of rare countries (after America and Japan) to develop such type of computers. The Param is 50 times more capable than that of American Computers. This computer will be very useful in long range weather forecasting, seismic data processing, oil exploration, launch vehicle simulation.